Modified recipe from The Bold Vegetarian Chef.
You can usually find black bean sauce and rice vinegar in the Asian section of most supermarkets. You can use regular vinegar, but rice vinegar has a more subtle flavor and is recommended.
If using dried mushrooms, soak then for 15 minutes in warm water. Cut out and discard center stem, cut up the rest of the mushrooms into small, bite-size pieces.
Peel and slice carrot into matchstick.
Place a large pot of water on the stove to boil.
Slice the tofu into three slabs as if they were small slices of bread. Heat 2 tablespoons of peanut oil in a pan. Fry both sides of the tofu slabs until lightly browned.
Remove from pan and let tofu slabs cool on paper towels to drain any oil. Cut up slabs into 1/2 inch cubes.
Heat the remaining 2 teaspoons peanut oil in a wok or large pan. Add the chilies, garlic and ginger. Stir-fry for 1 minute, then add the onion and cook until onion is slightly softened -- about 3 minutes.
Drop the udon noodles and the broccoli into the water (let this cook while you are stir-frying). In the wok, add the cabbage, carrot and mushroom. Stir-fry until the cabbage wilts. Drain noodles and broccoli in a colander, and then add to wok.
Stir in sesame oil, black bean sauce, sugar, soy sauce and bamboo shoots. Stir-fry for 2 minutes.
Turn off heat. REMOVE CHILES! Stir in vinegar and lemon juice. Stir in tofu cubes (stir gently so as not to break up the tofu). Serve in bowls garnished with a little bit of sesame seeds.